The industry of making confectionaries (ψιλικα ), like numerous other sectors, has actually changed dramatically in recent years. Although the fundamental solutions have gone through minor changes, the manufacturing technologies have transformed considerably (this applies specifically to the approaches of developing tiny items and also floor tiles, along with their packaging).
At the beginning of this chapter, it seems appropriate to discuss just these adjustments, yet extra on those later applied to certain recipes.
Various groups of confectionery items need certain molding methods to make sure that they can be wrapped as well as packaged in one of the most suitable method to buy. Probably one of the most successful development was the bread bar. These bars allow you to use cost-efficient techniques of manufacturing, packaging as well as screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were recognizable enhancements in the product packaging – both in the materials used as well as in the sealing methods. The majority of benches in order to ensure lengthy life span, to secure against insect damages as well as contamination need protective product packaging. We think about these consider different chapters.
We have actually already considered the production of delicious chocolate, and as a result it is clear that chocolate and also facility lusters have a mostly fatty basis, their moisture content is really reduced (typically less than 1%), as well as the ingredients are not in liquid service.
In many confectionery procedures, the dissolving capability of sugar (sucrose) is taken into account individually or in combination with other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) and invert sugar. There are two major teams of sugar confectionery items: a) products in which sugar is totally liquified, and also b) items in which sugar is partially liquified, and also partly existing in the form of tiny strong crystals put on hold in solution. These products may be changed with various other components (for example, milk and also fats). The initial group includes hard candy, hard and also soft milk desserts, toffee and also most jelly candies. The 2nd group includes items such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows and nougat with a noticable fine-crystalline framework.
Introduction confectionery manufacturing technologies
Below we will certainly see that all the variety of textures gotten is an outcome of using different technical processes and formulations, all of which call for unique approaches for the development of individual items. Right here we check out basic innovation issues, and see their certain uses in various other sections of this publication.
Smearing and reducing
The maker is outfitted with cooled rolls, which enable you to feed the item directly from the tool, where it is prepared, to home plate creating devices. After molding as well as lamination, home plates are fed to an air conditioning gadget, and after that to standard reducing tools and also spreaders. Then the items are glazed.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is probably the oldest approach of creating bars (ceramic tiles) as well as specific items from plastic items such as fudge, nougat as well as different pastes. A confectionery item in an appropriate plastic state, established by its moisture, fat content or temperature, is first fed to the rolls to acquire a plate of the required density. This plate is then fed to cutting gadgets to create broad strips, which are after that cut into narrow tiles or bars. Currently, the hot item is fed to cooled rolls, permitting to obtain multilayer plates. Home plates are continually cut into strips that travel through the (” spreading device)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or small items. An instance of such a procedure is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This approach is utilized for the manufacturing of candies, fondant and also jelly sweets, some types of milk sweets and fudge, marshmallows as well as various other products that can be acquired in liquid kind.
Some products in fluid kind might be built at a temperature level of concerning 150 ° C in a metal mold and mildew whose surface area is covered with a “lube”.
Pomadnye, želejnye sweet, maršmellou.
These items are usually cast into cells created in starch (see listed below the section “Fondant shells”). A much more recent development is the automated precipitation and extraction of fondant shells as well as some other confectionery items making use of metal molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), along with the rainfall of caramel and toffee right into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky product that has special buildings and also is resistant to reasonably heats, regular for the production of caramel confectionery.
This technique applies virtually solely to sweet sugar and also some kinds of toffee. The common flavorful candies, sweets with a filler as well as “toffee” are made.
The manufacturing principle is to cool the brewed syrup under controlled problems up until it gets to a pliable state. In this state, the item is changed into a kind of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the completed items (normally of a particular form or with a pattern) are gotten from it. The resulting items are quickly sent to the air conditioning cupboard and wrapping device.
To acquire some kinds of sugar and also crunchy candies, a version of this approach is made use of, in which the harness acquired in a similar means is fed to a cutting-wrapping maker, where with the help of high-speed circular blades, little pieces are reduced from it that concerned the wrapping equipment.
Extrusion and molding bars.
The concept of extrusion, executed in the production of several non-food products, has actually been effectively used in the confectionery sector. The application of this procedure to the production of different items– from soft products such as marshmallows as well as fondant sugary foods to extremely plastic nougat as well as milk chocolates– is described in  In this situation, the material based on extrusion is fed to the electrical outlet nozzles with the help of several rolls or augers. The nozzle opening profile establishes the form of the end product, as well as several extruders are equipped with a number of nozzles that create harnesses that can be cut into bars or tiny items. In fig. 19.2 programs various rolls for extruders, as well as fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder cross section with a device for cutting off small pieces from the hairs. In fig. 19.4 reveals the layout of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of eating gum as well as eating candy.
The style of the NID bar extruder is somewhat various. The feeding is carried out by grooved rollers similarly as in other extruders, but the material to be created is fed to a second profile roller. The profiled surface area of the roll is coated with fluoroplastic to guarantee very easy separation of the product as well as is utilized to shape benches into the called for shape. The pins aid get rid of the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is possible to make multi-layer bars in which 2 layers are extruded at the same time, or bars with a body from another confectionery item. Extrusion functions well with various other continuous production as well as glazing methods.
When extrusion confectionery must observe certain preventative measures.
Temperature level. The extrusion temperature is of basic relevance, specifically when it comes to milk candy as well as nougat, the consistency of which is extremely based on temperature level. Small changes in temperature level can result in huge adjustments in extrusion stress. For soft milk sweets, a temperature level of 35 to 38 ° C is usually made use of, however much depends upon the sort of product, as well as the specific temperature.
Scenic tour conditions should be determined empirically. Reduced temperature levels and also high pressures trigger knockout of extruder safety plugs.
Splitting up of fat … If fat divides throughout extrusion, this suggests poor emulsification. Improvement is accomplished when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the solution.
Devastation after extrusion … After extrusion, some products shed their shape, and also the strip, which is practically cylindrical in cross-section, after a short time on the strip might end up being noticeably flatter. This is due to several reasons:.
too expensive a moisture web content;.
It was not emulsified fat and may be too soft;.
the protein of any milk component is not effectively spread;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline structure has actually formed or has been damaged by excessive stirring after crystal formation. This flaw can be really subtle, and also in continuous fudge production, its appearance relies on the moment the crystallizing lipstick is included prior to extrusion. It is possible to determine the ideal conditions for a specific devices just experimentally. Firms specializing in the production of extrusion devices have accomplished a big quantity of study in the style of devices for the extrusion of confectionery items of different consistencies. For some products – such as gummies and also chewing periodontal – the roll extruder is paving the way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These technologies are explained in other sections of guide.
The principle of panning is already explained in Chapter 5. There are two types of sugar rolling – difficult and loosened. With tough knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar and also syrup are developed on the preferred body (as an example, nuts) as well as dried out with warm air death in between the applied layers. Loosened knurling is executed in a similar method, yet making use of chilly innovation. Soft shells are used (as an example, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling), and also the finish is made of sugar (or glucose) syrup and also powdered sugar. After reaching the preferred dimension and weight of the finishing, the sweets are partly dried and also covered with polish. The process is totally mechanized, consisting of loading and unloading the tanks, automatic splashing of syrups (or delicious chocolate), as well as control of drying out or cooling air to the containers.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, glucose or corn syrup and also invert sugar is typically signified in English by the word “creme” (lotion), but some typical items utilize the option “cream”, as well as in various countries it is called in a different way.
The fondant is prepared by dissolving sugar and also sugar syrup (or invert sugar) in water and concentrating by boiling to a solution having regarding 88% DM. At ambient temperature, this option is supersaturated with sugar and unpredictable, and also if it is rapidly mixed as well as cooled, after that the excess sugar falls out of the service in the form of little crystals. Thus, the fondant mass has a solid stage of sugar crystals suspended in a liquid phase consisting of a saturated remedy of “sugars”.
Without mixing as well as cooling big crystals are formed. Beating by itself provides poor results, given that a big amount of latent heat of condensation is released. If the whipped syrup is left hot, crystallization reduces as well as succeeding slow air conditioning results in the formation of huge crystals. Fondant of top quality must be soft in consistency.
Initially, lipstick was prepared utilizing only sugar, which was liquified in water as well as concentrated by boiling to regarding the degree of 88-90% ST. Since the solubility of sugar at typical temperature levels is only 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is very unpredictable and takes shape upon rapid cooling, “giving” very large crystals.
To overcome this disadvantage, an additive was utilized that triggered the inversion of a part of the sugar as well as raised the general solubility – this made it possible to whip the syrup into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, much more preferably, tartar (tartaric acid) are utilized thus additives. The formation of invert sugar from sugar is reviewed in an additional phase, yet right here we just keep in mind that such additives decay part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, into two monosaccharides, dextrose (glucose) and fructose. Fructose is a lot more soluble (regarding 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and its visibility with dextrose permits the concentrated syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This approach of application of the additive is extremely undependable, because the amount of invert sugar developed varies significantly depending upon the pureness of the sugar, the boiling time as well as the firmness of the water utilized. Best outcomes are acquired by contributing to the sugar syrup a particular quantity of invert sugar, prepared individually.
Lipstick, made from sugar and also invert sugar, has a granular structure as well as is very sweet in taste (it is hardly ever utilized in contemporary confectionery manufacturing). Sugar (corn) syrup has actually replaced invert sugar in lipstick formulas; it is less wonderful, as well as the visibility of complex carbohydrates manages the development of crystals and offers a much more viscous lipstick, which does not have a loosened (brittle) texture.